Biomolecules chart

In Biology, in the past few classes, we`ve been studying and learning about some of the most important biomolecules: carbohydrates, proteins and lipids. Then, we had to confiscate a chart comparing these 3. I worked with Juan Lutowicz.


Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids
Chemical elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO) Carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen (CHON) carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (CHO)
Bonds Glycosidic (covalent bond formed between a saccharide and another compound from the hydroxyl group) Peptide (bond formed in a condensation between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another) Ester (covalent bond between a fatty acid and a glycerol formed during a condensation reaction in which one of the hydroxyl group on glycerol and one hydrogen from the carboxyl group on a fatty acid are liberated as a water molecule)
Components Monosaccharides/simple sugars, disaccharides and oligosaccharides Aminoacids Fatty acids+glycerol
Chemical tests Test for (Reducing) Simple Sugars (Monosaccharides): adding Benedict’s Solution to a food and heating it.If reducing sugars are present, it turns into an orange-brown colour.

Test for starch: adding Iodine Solution to a food sample.If starch is present, a blue-black color is obtained.

Biuret Solution: adding this solution to a food sample. If proteins are present, the solution will turn from light blue to purple. Ethanol/Alcohol test: If there are no lipids present, it will form small droplets and disperse throughout the solution. A positive result will see the lipid layer sitting on top of the water layer and will have a red-orange color.
Solubility in water Solubles (except oligosaccharides: insolubles) Some are soluble (ex: haemoglobin), some are insoluble (ex: keratin) Insoluble
Molecule examples Glucose (monosaccharide)

Sucrose (disaccharide)

Starch (oligosaccharide)

Lactase Coconut oil
Functions Needed for energy to respire Used for making new cells, antibodies, haemoglobin and also used for energy Used to release and store energy (as insulators)
Sources Pasta, bread, cereals Egg white, meat, fish, chicken, beans Cheese, butter, nuts, avocado

Homeostasis: Control of blood sugar levels

After studying Homeostasis and the control of the body temperature, we started learning about the control of our blood sugar levels. Now we had to do some activites related to the topic. This is the task, and these are our answers.

  1. b.
Homeostasis - Controlling blood sugar levelstarget organ of insulin: liver

c. Negative feedback: way in which the hypothalamus, skin and muscles work together to keep your internal body sugar levels in blood constant.

2. a.

Diabetes Type 1

Diabetes Type 2

Death of cells that secrete insulin

Cells stop responding properly to insulin, obesity, lack of exercise,

Treatment Daily injections of insulin to reduce blood glucose concentration, eat regularly, manage the diet, exercise carefully to balance their energy needs with the food and insulin intake

Eating a balanced diet, exercising regularly, losing weight,

c. Genetic engineering: taking a gene from one species and putting it into another species


How glucose is regulated

Glucose level Effect on pancreas Effect on liver Effect on glucose level
too high insulin secreted into the blood liver converts glucose into glycogen goes down
too low insulin not secreted into the blood liver does not convert glucose into glycogen goes up

Endocrine System

In Biology we started with our new topic: the Endocrine System. We read about it in our book ad then answered some questions. I worked with Pancho.

  1. Hormone: chemical substance produced by a gland, carried by the blood, which alters the activity of one or more specific target organs
  2.  wlngél-300x295IMG_1743
  3. Adrenaline makes your heart beat faster, supplying oxygen to your brain and muscles more quickly. This gives them more energy for fighting or for running away. Also it increases the breathing rate, so that more oxygen can enter the blood in the lungs. Blood vessels contract so that they carry very little blood. Adrenaline also causes pupils to widen which allows more light into the eye and so we can se clearer. In addition to this, this hormone causes the liver to release glucose into the blood so that muscles have extra glucose and can release energy from it and use it also for contraction.